New thinking on Stonehenge: might the original chalk embankment have been intended primarily as a simple windbreak, protecting those Neolithic open fires against gusts of wind from the Atlantic? Was it later reinvented for an entirely different purpose (don’t ask!)?

Let’s start this posting with the photograph that accompanied a front-page article in this morning’s Telegraph newspaper:


tunisian troglodyte enclosure

Note the reference to protection against “winter winds”  (more relevant to the UK climate – sorry, WEATHER – than “searing heat”,  hugely important for what follows.

Does the circle of banked-up soil put you in mind of anything else, like, say, the UK’s numerous henges, an inheritance  from our Neolithic forbears?

And what is the most famous henge of all (while atypical in certain regards)?.  Why – Stonehenge of course!

But one’s first mental picture of Stonehenge are those monumental stones and those mighty lintels that span the uprights. What’s the connection with the Tunisian refuge in the photograph you may ask?

Answer: Stonehenge evolved from simple beginnings, not dissimilar from what you see above.  Yes, it started out the same as all other henges (except for the chalk embankment being inside the excavated ditch, suggesting its original purpose was at least partly defensive, unlike the typical henge where the bank is outside the ditch).

I had to say that, to forestall the purists who might otherwise jump on me for using the term “henge” loosely in the case of Stone “henge” with its reversed chalk and ditch, despite that not mattering for what follows!

Here’s a schematic representation of the ‘Phase 1’ Stonehenge from another site (Chris Collyer’s) to which I’ve added compass points to show the location of the two gaps in the original chalk embankment (or as some would say its alleged intentional alignment with respect to sunrise and sunset, summer and winter solstices etc etc – about which a brief word later (very brief!).

stonehengephase1 labelled NE and S


Many other UK henges, and their predecessors , the so-called ’causewayed enclosures’ display the same orientation with respect to the compass points, with entrances on the north-east (or north) side of the circle, maybe one or two others, like the additional south-facing one above, but never on the west or south-west side. Why not?

Time for some plain speaking!  Put aside all the  bunkum about  Stonehenge being intentionally aligned to view the setting sun, whether on the longest or shortest day of the year (summer and winter solstices). That might make sense if Stonehenge had started out as the spectacular monument that stands largely intact to this day. But as just one of dozens of humble henges  with no stones initially, no framing arch-like trilithons, that makes no sense whatsoever.

So why the orientation you see above?

Answer: forget about so-called archaeoastronomy. Think meteorology instead. Think about the windy British Isles, with our prevailing south-westerly winds coming in year-round off the Atlantic!



That’ll do for starters.  More to follow tomorrow… starting with the location of the 56 so-called “Aubrey holes” you see in Chris Collyer’s diagram up close to the embankment. What were they for?

2nd instalment: Sun Feb 25

Yes, let’s try and get our heads round those 56 so-called Aubrey holes,  shall we? They  are perhaps better described as pits, given their dimensions, and which may (or may not!) have once each supported a wooden post.

Here’s Chris Collyer’s diagram  (right) of how the assemblage might have looked, if each of the 56 “holes” had indeed accommodate  a post.




Note that we are now viewing the proto-Stonehenge from a different angle (thus my labelling again with compass directions).


There are a number of noteworthy features. Firstly, note how close the conjectural posts are to the chalk embankment – a mere 5 metres of so (the diameter of the circle beig  much greater – some 85 metres). Note too that there’s no break in the circle of posts – they partially ‘obstruct’ both of the two entrances.

Here’s a copy & paste from the wiki entry on Aubrey holes:

It was found that the pits were an average of 0.76m deep and 1.06m in diameter. Twenty-five of the pits contained later cremation burials inserted into their upper fills along with long bone pins which may have secured leather or cloth bags used to hold the remains. Their presence makes Stonehenge Britain’s oldest cremation cemetery.

Plan of Stonehenge 1 with the Aubrey holes shown as white circles. After Cleal et al.

The pits appear to have been refilled with the freshly excavated chalk rubble soon after being dug as no weathering has been noted on the chalk sides of the pits. They may also have been dug out and refilled numerous times. The holes are in an accurate, 271.6m circumference circle, distributed around the edge of the area enclosed by Stonehenge’s earth bank, with a standard deviation in their positioning of 0.4m. The circle they describe is around 5m inside the monument’s bank. Twenty-one of the holes remain unexcavated and no reliable dating material has been recovered from the other thirty-five. The only available carbon date from the holes comes from charcoal in one of the later cremations. It gives the broad range of 2919-1519 cal BC.

Read on and we’re told that the 56 supposed posts (of which there’s no remaining trace) could have served as a lunar calendar (each 2 posts representing .one of the 28 days thereof) or even a celebration of the  human menstrual cycle (also 28 days).  Corroborative evidence?  Who needs corroborative evidence if one’s an archaeoastronomer, desperate to supply explanations that titillate rather than inform!


Tucked away, there’s a more credible answer for why there are 56 evenly spaced holes/conjectured posts. It’s to do with practicalities, like how do you mark out a series of evenly-spaced locations to accommodate a carefully, i.e. mathematically chosen number of locations that ensures even-spacing?

One might think as I did (at least initially) that one can go adding diameters to a given circle in a sequence that sequence that runs 1,2,4,8,16 … etc. But that gives an outcome that has 32 or 64 locations, not the 56 that accords with reality!

We have Anthony Johnson (see wiki reference)  to thank for what one of us at any rate considers a highly credible explanation.

Johnson, Anthony, Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma. pp208-217 (Thames & Hudson, 2008) ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9

It’s called the ‘square(s)-in-circle’ methodology. One draws a circle and starts by inserting a singkle square, giving 4 equally- spaced points on the circle. One then adds a second square, rotated to the right (say) to generate another 4 equally spaced points. One goes on adding more squares, rotated further round the circle, so as to  mark off further loci. But this time one progresses in increments of 4 (0, 4, 8, 12 etc), i.e. an arithmetic as distinct from geometric progression,  and this time one ends up (if desired) with 56 equally spaced locations around the circumference!

So let’s forget about lunar or menstrual cycles, shall we, and acknowledge that Neolithic man had a little geometry at his disposal which enabled him to set out a circle of evenly spaced wooden posts, or rather holes for conjectural posts? Presumably he had some ‘higher’ purpose in mind, even if it eludes some modern (overly-modern?) minds …

So what’s the evidence if any, no matter how tendentious, that those holes really did contain posts? To answer that, one needs to assemble a lot more pieces of a jigsaw with much interlinking but hopefully credible speculation. I’ll continue tomorrow in Instalment 3 …



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Best not to ask what Stonehenge was really for … though that beaked sarsen (so-called) Heel Stone may provide a likely clue …

Hello again.

Yes, it’s been a while since I last posted here (Spring 2016). Why the absence? Well, I’ll say more about that later. For now, I would simply ask you to note the new tag line to the right of the site’s title, and the edited version of which chosen for this posting’s title (dropping the reference to Silbury Hill,  and flagging up what I consider a strangely neglected feature of Stonehenge – namely that menacing looking Heel Stone).

Ah yes, the “Heel Stone”. What a ludicrous name for what we’re told is a naturally-shaped (uncarved) sarsen (silicified sandstone) rock that is at or close to its original position (just a little over 75 metres from geometrical centre of THE  world-famous monument itself).

If you think I’m too harsh re nomenclature, then read the mumbo jumbo that appears on the wiki entry for the Heel Stone, with its references to “friar”, “heel” and “Devil”, then look at wiki’s accompanying photograph, and those of my own that now follow.

Yes, let’s start  this update  of my not-surprisingly unfashionable, some might say distasteful ) views on Stonehenge (and indeed of  Neolithic Britain’s quirky henges, stone circles in general, not to mention Silbury Hill) with some photos I took at the site in Spring 2012. Those lacking intestinal fortitude might be well advised to leave this posting now … Those made of sterner stuff, willing to empathize with our Neolithic forbears, constantly having to deal, often at short notice with an age-old problem (like how to dispose of one’s newly deceased loved ones) and unfamiliar with this blogger’s previous postings should clench their teeth and read on.


Heel Stone pic 2,4 and 5

The so-called ‘Heel Stone’ (yuk). Does that look like a heel to you? Or something else?  (Incidentally, that’s the now decommisioned minor A-road behind that used to join the busy A303 a short distance to the right, but is now dug up and turfed over)


Heel Stone, pic 1 and 3

I repeat. Does that look like a “heel” to you, or something else, something that matches the other side shown above? (Note the intruding traffic from the left which visitors to to Stonehenge won’t have seen since 2013).


I shall shortly insert a transcript of the Comments section from a posting on another site (Tim Daw’s  commendably factual but oh-so-restrained, some might say tight-lipped site) in which the hugely , dare one say strangely neglected Heel Stone makes a brief appearance.

Here it is, minimally edited:


sciencebod 9 February 2018 at 15:33
The name that Tim’s given this upmarket site of his intrigues me, given that so much attention has been given over decades to the Welsh bluestones (about which more, nay, afterthought, less in a moment).
Why the focus on the local sarsens (chemically silicified sandstone). Sure, they are the tallest most imposing feature of Stonehenge. But what else is special? The lintels obviously. But in all the discussion and speculation re Stonehenge (astronomical calendar, mortuary for the remains of the dead etc) I don’t ever recall seeing any role proposed for those lintels! Why go to all that trouble in Neolithic or Bronze Age times? Surprising really, given those intricate and laboriously-carved woodworking joints (mortise and tenon, tongue and groove).
I’ve given my own explanation on a few postings earlier for those sarsen lintels, aka transoms, aka crosspieces. Thanks Neil Wiseman for your response. But let’s now be hearing some more sarsen-lintel focused ideas please!
Tim, what’s your thinking? Come on, it’s your site. Call the shots please…
As regards the bluestones, I’ve now been able to fit them into my scheme, drawing on a property that I scoffed at initially on first encounter but which is now music to my ears. But that can wait.
Come on folks! What’s so special about those sarsens, apart from ‘bigger is better’? I repeat: why go to all that trouble? It sure isn’t anything to do with summer and winter solstices, for which aligned uprights alone are all that’s needed.
Colin Berry (aka sciencebod)


sciencebod10 February 2018 at 15:23
Oh dear. This site is turning out to be such a disappointment – so few comments, so little feedback, despite the informative and authoritative nature of Tim’s postings.
Don’t get me started on some of the alternative sites – which invite comments, then tell one that the comment one has submitted must first be pre-moderated, that one is in a queue, but which finally never appears (with most other postings also devoid of any genuine-looking comments).
There is much that is wrong right now as regards the received ‘wisdom’ regarding Stonehenge (read dogma) and stone circles, henges etc in general where the internet is concerned (I could say more, but will hold my tongue for now).
It’s getting on for 2 years since I last posted on Stonehenge/Silbury Hill on my own two sites – some 20 postings in all between 2012 and 2016. None – and I repeat none – have been picked up by any number of those dubious sites – even on comments – this one excluded.
There seems to be a deliberate attempt at message-suppression (to which this blogger is no stranger, having attempted to ‘tell it the way it is’ regarding the supposedly ‘enigmatic’ Shroud of Turin these last 6 years!
Any chance of a guest posting on this site, one that briefly summarizes my near certainty that our Neolithic ancestors set great store, as well they might, by preliminary AFS (avian-facilitated skeletonization) aka “sky burial” aka ‘defleshing’ aka excarnation as a preliminary to final bone cremation?
Those massive sarsen lintels were the high point of AFS evolution and technology – monumental bird perches if the truth be told – designed to attract and retain the nearest the British Isles have to the Eurasian vulture – almost certainly the adaptable and voracious seagull!
Sorry to keep banging on – but I have to say it again – the internet is not working as it should to disseminate new ideas. That’s thanks, I suspect, to vested interests of one sort or another… this site being mercifully free, if somewhat low profile right now , due one suspects to its emphasis on unadorned facts rather than bonkers (?)ideas…
Colin Berry (aka sciencebod)

Neil Wiseman10 February 2018 at 22:53
Hi Colin,
The level of correspondence I receive is such that I cannot immediately reply to everyone. Apologies.
I have little doubt that birds of various kinds participated in the excarnation process, it’s probably key among the factors why the wickets were elevated.
However, it is unlikely that the lintels at Stonehenge were set as a perch for birds waiting on queue to feed. If any consideration for this was given, I’m sure a simple post would have sufficed.
Excarnation was part of a process which was virtually obsolete by the time the Sarsen Circle was erected. Interment had come firmly in vogue during this period and it wasn’t long before cremation was discontinued altogether — at least according to the record. Therefore it’s speculative in the extreme that such a practice would be instituted by such a labor intensive program as these elaborate stone perches.
Moving on, elsewhere you have mentioned a disagreement with the idea that Stonehenge was aligned to the sun.
I have heard roofs. I have heard abattoirs. I have heard moats. I have heard Aliens, Pixies and Giants. I have heard it all. But nowhere have I heard that the sun was not among the prime motivations for constructing this monument.
There were other motivations as well, though detailing them is beyond the scope of this little notice. Basically, the sun was at the rock-bottom of every element in a belief-system that spanned over 4,000 years.
In fact, my friend, it still is — we simply call it something else.
The Stonehenge stone-phase is at the tail end of that vastly long-lived culture and embraces a number of concepts which illustrate a firm understanding of how the world worked and the people’s role in it. At that stage death played a peripheral mention. The Aubrey Holes had been forgotten and folks of status were being inhumed intact, complete with ceremonial grave-goods.
No birds need apply.
As a footnote, I do agree that at least one type of lichen was no doubt delivered by bird.
Best wishes,

Modelling of a first-generation British (pre-British?) Neolithic  henge,   bank only shown, no ditch, with opening that faced the rising sun at dawn ( approximately east, but more NE in summer, more SE in winter), designed to illuminate and attract hungry birds on the wing to the offering of a free meal (shown as red disc). Forget about 18th century William Stukely’s  alignment with “summer and winter solstices”, now trumpeted as if established fact!


In other words, the role of compass location of gaps in the enclosure is linked to the Sun, but for reasons of illumination, rather than a solstice calendar. Later timber posts or standing stones would then have to be suitably aligned as well, so as not to block that early-morning shaft of sunlight.
One can add a role for those bluestones as well. They clang/chime when struck, functioning as a Neolithic precursor of metal bells. I propose that the bluestones were “rung” whenever there was a new offering, attracting gulls from miles around.
Astronomical calendar etc? Ingenious, but I’m reminded of that choice expression deployed by Sir Kenneth Clark in his “Civilization” TV series all those years ago (“false turnings and dissolving perspectives”)!

Neil Wiseman 11 February 2018 at 13:10
Hi Colin,
The Brits, as you call them, certainly dug a lot of trenches in the UK in the Neolithic. There’s over 900 causewayed enclosures and henges there, in Ireland, and even a few in France. That’s a lot of digging over a vast period of time. There’s several different varieties among both categories. A henge is generally defined as a single circular ditch with the spoil piled on the outside as an embankment. There’s usually at least one causeway in the circumference. Stonehenge is not, technically speaking, a henge, as its spoil is on the inside. I think of it as a Reversed Causewayed Enclosure.
Whether cremations involved just skeletons or not is moot, and certainly relatives could have taken some of the ash away. But as anyone who’s had a relative cremated will tell you, a human doesn’t take up a lot of space. My mother and my brother sit on my mantle in tidy little urns. Inhumations of bodies are much more likely to have bones missing, and often do.
Conservatively, Stonehenge has 250/300 people buried in or near the Aubreys and on the bank at certain locations, making it the largest known Neolithic cemetery on the Island. But remember — some of the remains there are older than the henge itself, so must have been curated before being buried. The auroch skulls flanking the Southern Causeway are also older.
Metal certainly made it easier to dig in the chalk, yes.
The mostly unworked Heelstone is almost certainly a product of the immediate vicinity, and its solutional hole is probably very close by. In its nooks and crannies people see not only an eagle, but a dog, a moray eel, and a face among other things. Neither of us is the first to notice/mention it.
The Slaughter Stone is probably local as well.
I feel your AFS model could accommodate the sun, as the two are mutually exclusive. Bear in mind that I never mentioned the sun as a ‘calendar’. Though it certainly could have been, it was mostly the moon which was used. From the mid-Neolithic on the sun was celebrated for its life-giving properties, among other things. But earlier there seems to have been a fear associated with winter solstice. Would the sun return? There are several examples of a demonstration showing the people that it would, and I cite Newgrange as an elaborate case in point. Again, the scope of this thinking is very involved and cannot be detailed here.
The cardinal directions played a different role in the scheme of things than they do today, though there’s certainly an overlap. But, by my reckoning, only South is clearly shown to play a role at Stonehenge, and this association does not involve the stones. I know of no enclosure where North is a causeway, but northeast is, because that’s the solstice direction. As far as sightlines and alignments are concerned, be advised that the Heelstone’s original setting actually blocked the sunrise.
Where shadows fall also seems to have been important, and this is demonstrated in more than a few instances.
The Bluestones served a much more important role than as dinner bells for birds. They are buried in the ground and do not ring when struck. They thud.
I am usually loathe to use the term when discussing other people’s ideas, but in this case it’s apt. The concept is ridiculous in the extreme.

Best wishes,
sciencebod11 February 2018 at 14:51
Hello again Neil
If anything to do with Sun or Moon, would there not have been a few markings on one or more stones, a point I raised earlier?
There is also the more general point that pre-stone circle/pre-henge farmers, those growing crops especially, would/must have had some crude kind of calendar at their disposal, and such a calendar would not have required massive stonework or even timber or chalk bank construction to figure out where one was in the annual cycle of seasons.
How? Imagine a farmer plonking down on a west-facing tree stump at the end of his working day, watching the sun set. He would be aware that the Sun sets progressively northwards up to a certain part of the year, with the longest day/shortest night , then stops, then moves back until reaching a new stop point much further south (80 degrees in modern terminology, i.e. the best part of a right angle).
Suppose now he counted the number of nights between what we now call the summer and winter solstices, by making cuts on a branch, or dropping small flints into a clay pot. He’d have found there were a regular repeating pattern of approx 182 nights, give or take between the solstices. Already he’d have a notion not just of days and nights (obviously) but now, more importantly, of years as well.
Months, notably lunar months? Yes, watching the phases of the Moon would serve, but why bother when it’s the warming Sun and seasons that are crucial to crops? Suppose then, dispensing for now with the Moon, our farmer decided to sow seed at the halfway point between the shortest and longest day, what we now call the vernal or spring equinox (arriving March 20 this year). He could do that crudely, by waiting for the Sun to set halfway between the two solstices OR, if wishing to be more accurate, could have waited until he had 90 or so notches or flints.
Why then go to the bother of constructing anything permanent simply to know where one is approximately in the passage of each new year when all that’s needed is a clear view towards the westward horizon (or alternatively the east-facing one instead if preferring to make his observations first thing in the morning?
What’s all this got to do with causeways, henges, standing stones, Stonehenge one might ask? I say nothing whatsoever – absolutely nothing. They were designed for an entirely different purpose, to do with giving dear departed relatives a respectful but efficient send-off to the afterlife, one in which an intermediary role for local birdlife was quickly perceived and accomplished by degrees, culminating in those mighty sarsen lintels (bird perches)for which it’s hard to see any obvious role where monitoring the annual seasons is concerned, or Sun or Moon worship etc etc.
I say that the summer/winter solstice theory is a false connection, one that should have been dispensed with long ago for lack of corroborating evidence and displaying, dare one say, a degree of fanciful or wishful thinking. It tries to make our Neolithic ancestors seem more detached from the problems of everyday existence than was really the case (like where the next meal was coming from, or what to do when Aunt Dot suddenly keels over, the ground outside is rock hard, the firewood nearly used up etc). Thank goodness for communal organization, or the first blossoming thereof.
Go visit the local (outdoor) funeral parlour, lit up at dawn if the sky is clear, thanks to its alignment in relation to sunrise and sunset. Those clever and methodical funeral directors have worked out a system. Call back a day or two later for an odour-free package of Auntie’s bones to add to the collection on their mantelpiece, or its Neolithic equivalent…
Don’t bother carving anything on the posts or stones. No one needs reminding what they are for…
(I’ll return with a separate comment later re the claimed ‘lithophonic’ properties of Stonehenge’s bluestones, once I’ve selected passages from that Royal College of Arts posting).


sciencebod11 February 2018 at 20:07

From another site:

RCA Research Team Uncovers Stonehenge’s Sonic Secrets
2 December 2013


(In what follows,”L&P” refers to the RCA’s somewhat mystifying “Landscape and Perception” project!)

” Sonic or musical rocks are referred to as ‘ringing rocks’ or ‘lithophones’. A significant percentage of the rocks on Carn Menyn (ed. Preseli Hills, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales) produce metallic sounds like bells, gongs or tin drums when struck with small hammerstones. Where suspected Neolithic quarries are located, there’s an even higher localised percentage.
The Preseli village Maenclochog, which itself means bell or ringing stones, used bluestones as church bells until the eighteenth century. While the Preseli area has long known of lithophones, the L&P project has confirmed why so many Neolithic monuments exist in the region, and provided strong evidence that the sounds made the landscape sacred to Stone Age people. The study quantifies the comments of the British archeologist and early ‘rock gong’ pioneer, Bernard Fagg, who suspected there were ringing rocks on or around Preseli, and suggested the link between these and the sacredness of Neolithic monuments and landscapes.
In July, English Heritage gave the L&P investigators unprecedented permission to acoustically test the bluestones at Stonehenge. Accompanied by archaeologists from Bournemouth and Bristol universities, the research team set to work testing the megaliths.
They didn’t expect much, as lithophones require ‘resonant space’ – space, in which, sound waves have sufficient room to vibrate to produce the pure sounds that can be experienced on Carn Menyn. The bluestones at Stonehenge are set deep into the ground (some having been supported in concrete), which can also dampen acoustic potential.
To the researchers’ surprise, however, having tested all the bluestones at the monument, several were found to make distinctive (if muted) sounds. This was a sure indication they would have been fully lithophonic if they’d had sufficient resonant space. Furthermore, a number of bluestones at Stonehenge show evidence of having been struck. This have been in order (sic) to create an acoustic environment, according to Wozencroft. A full understanding of the nature of these markings will require further archaeological investigations, however.”
Beware, dear reader: what follows is pure speculation (from this site’s owner!
Let’s suppose, just suppose, that the Neolithic folk who had inhabited the Preseli hills had been under attack from invaders, say from the sea (just a few miles away) and decided to migrate eastwards. Suppose they had decided to take their “ringing” stones with them, for whatever purpose (with gull-attracting properties a possibility).
It’s said that some 500 years separate the quarrying of the bluestones and their arrival on Salisbury Plain (based on radiocarbon dating of accompanying charcoal etc from fires). Well, 500 years gives plenty of time for manual transport, by whatever means (lifting, dragging etc). Maybe the migrants moved eastwards a little a time, setting up their stones at every stop, each one a new albeit temporary home. Might they have been trailed initially by their “own” gulls etc, but later attracting local ones at each new stopping place, the latter also becoming attuned to the ‘wake up’ call each time the stones were struck to signal each new offering when there was a death in the family (correction, families).

Neil Wiseman11 February 2018 at 20:23
Hi Colin,
As you might imagine, there’s quite a few people who troll Tim’s Blog without commenting, and most are known to me.
I have just received an extensive list of henges and circles which do indeed have north-facing causeways.
So I stand corrected in that regard.


sciencebod11 February 2018 at 21:00
“As you might imagine, there’s quite a few people who troll Tim’s Blog without commenting, and most are known to me”

So what prompted that observation, Neil? Hopefully not anything I have said…
Who might want to troll Tim’s site, and how can they do so if they don’t comment?
Consider me marginally gobsmacked…
Neil Wiseman12 February 2018 at 01:19
I got an email concerning it. The remarks weren’t made here.
sciencebod 12 February 2018 at 07:19
Thanks Neil. I realized afterwards it must be something happening elsewhere…
Just a quick note on possible logistics before this posting gets overlain with new ones (such a shame/annoyance that Blogger does not provide a “Latest Comments” list to all postings, past as well as present.
The aim was to perform the entire process in a 36 – 48 hour time span.
Here’s a possible sequence of operations
Day 1: body of deceased to be delivered after sunset. Necessary preliminaries (let’s not discuss details) took place during hours of darkness.
Day 2: prepared body placed on central spot shortly before dawn. Central zone then cleared of people.
The bluestones were then struck, the chimes attracting gulls and /or other avian scavengers from miles around.
The corpse was gradually stripped of most of its flesh throughout the daylight hours, at least at highly developed Stonehenge, Avebury etc, designed to attract and accommodate scores of scavenger birds. The soul of the deceased would be considered to have been released to the heavens (“sky burial”).
Come dusk, the skeletal remains would be collected up and dispatched to a nearby crematorium, probably outside the excarnation area, possibly outside the circular heaped-up bank.
Come nightfall, fires/pyres were lit, the largely-defleshed bones quickly and cleanly cremated, then later retrieved from the ashes.
Day 3: Relatives arrived to collect and take away cremated bones. While they would be aware of flocks of birds on the wing, coming and going, and indeed take comfort from that, they would be spared the sight of the central feeding area, that being screened off by the raised bank of the enclosure. (Indeed Mark 1 AFS relied almost entirely on the chalk bank of a causewayed enclosure, both as a screen and a man-made landmark visible to birds from afar, maybe with a few scattered timber posts initially as additional perches, later progressing to standing stones, then those mighty lintels.) Yes, the latter weren’t purely decorative – they served a purpose! Why so massive? Because that’s all that was available nearby as bridging stone. Thus the carpentry joints needed to prevent unwieldy sarsen stones from rocking, as well as a proto-Ikea aid to idiot-proof assembly.

From another site:
Newly discovered Neolithic Datchet enclosure (announced just 3 days ago)


Why all the animal bones – domestic and wild – to say nothing of that severed human skull?
Can be accommodated with the AFS model! How? Beware: more speculation:
To be a workable proposition, the skeletonization would have to be speedy and efficient (relatives don’t want to be kept waiting too long for their take-home package). That means attracting and retaining a sizeable population of avian scavengers so there’s always a number of hopefuls on permanent standby – scores at least.
What if there’s a temporary halt in supply of mortal remains? Answer: one plugs the hiatus with animal remains, maybe feasting on the choicest parts before giving feathered friends the left-overs.
Thus the connection between feasting, animal and human bones… Just don’t ask about all those young pigs at the Durrington wintertime-feasting site!
sciencebod 12 February 2018 at 07:52
PS: More on those Datchet animal bones (both domestic and wild animals):
The funeral centre had to be paid for its services. But how, given there was no money in Neolithic times as a medium of exchange?
Answer: you didn’t just turn up with your deceased relative. You brought an animal as well – either from your herd if a farmer, or from hunting expeditions into the surrounding countryside.
As I say, the mortuary attendants could feast initially on choicer cuts, maybe inviting the relatives and/or others to join them, and then use leftovers to ensure there was always something that would keep the avian scavengers on permanent standby.

Richard Bartosz 12 February 2018 at 10:50

Hi sciencebod,
Your passion on this topic of your theory is obvious. It is however off-topic!
If you can argue that this theory is fundamental to whether or not the tunnel should be built, then you will be on-topic and you might get a response from people – particularly anti-tunnel supporters – who would wish not only to use your arguments to support their case, but would also automatically promote your theory.
Best wishes.

sciencebod12 February 2018 at 11:14
Point taken Richard
But there were no comments when I happened on this posting, nor the one before that, nor the one before that, nor the one… (get my point?)
So while I’m admittedly off-topic, there’s no-one on-topic either. So I could rightly claim (?)to be doing the site a small favour merely by inserting a touch of controversy, maybe attracting a few extra visitors while not as far as I can see deterring new commentators far less distracting from any ongoing dialogue of which there is scarcely any to speak of.
So come on, all you pro- and anti-tunnel supporters. Tim is going to some trouble to keep you informed and up-to-date. Supply some feedback please.
Oh, and there is the overarching site focus, expressed in its title no less – Much of my own AFS thesis is directed to providing a function for the sarsen lintels, on which conventional solstice alignment mantra remains strangely silent!
As for that tunnel, I never cease to be amazed at the projected cost of so-called road improvements, in this instance £1.6 billion. Just think what could be done with that kind of money elsewhere, representing as it does over £25 for every man, woman and child in the country. The homeless could be given at least a temporary roof over their heads during the cold winter months…

(An advisory site says that one merely needs to deploy the HTML command “img” using square brackets, but that was refused when testing on my own site a few minutes ago)!
There’s a second one I was going to shown namely traffic filing directly past the slightly elevated site at a safe and sedate rubber-necking speed a mere 200 metres or so away, but on second thoughts I shan’t bother with it. Everyone here knows the problem as regards the close proximity of Stonehenge and the major, most direct route across Salisbury Plain from London to the West Country.
My cheap and cheerful solution will follow later in the day (well, cheap compared with that obscene £1.6 billion for the road tunnel).

sciencebod 14 February 2018 at 07:32
First, as a necessary preliminary, forget about any idea that cutting off all sights and sounds of road traffic guarantees a religious experience. It’s not just that you’ll be surrounded by scores, possibly hundreds of fellow sightseers. You’ll be too preoccupied with thoughts about the staggering sum of money (over £40 for a family!)you’ve been required to part with to that ghastly cash-cow-milking machine that calls itself English Heritage, and for what? To be restricted to a roped-off path that does not allow you to get up really close to the main stones!
There should be a two-tier entry system: free (except for car park) to those wishing to see their national heritage but willing to be allowed no closer than that path) OR a charge (say £5 per head) for those wishing to view the stones at close quarters (no touching etc).
The monument merely needs to be screened-off from the never-ending flow of nearby passing traffic. But how “nearby”? Over what length of approaching and receding A303, taking into account the various rises and dips in the road? How can motorists know (legitimately) they are approaching, then passing close, to a world-famous site if it’s then screened off closer-up so as to prevent a freebie rubber-necking view? (I suspect the distraction is caused as much – if not more – by the masses of wandering sightseers than by the stones per se!.
It’s the nature of the screening that is crucial, and I don’t mean a subterranean tunnel that requires scooping out and disposing of thousands of tons of local geology (and probably archaeology too).
More to follow…


sciencebod 14 February 2018 at 11:06
Yes, an approx. two kilometre (approx 1.2 mile) stretch of A303 centred on the stone circle should be screened off so that sightseers do not see and hear road traffic at close quarters nor vice versa.
Ideally the screening, coming from the Amesbury/London direction, should start at the top of the incline one sees in my photo. Initially I thought an avenue of trees might suffice for that downhill stretch, compared with the more expensive man-made screen that follows. But I quickly discarded that idea. Why? Because motorists and their passengers should be allowed a fleeting glimpse from afar (1 to 1.5 km) of the monument and allowed time to decide whether to call in for a visit, scheduled or otherwise.
It’s the next (2km) stretch that is crucial. It should advertise the site to road traffic, but not create a distraction. How? The manner of doing that could be opened up to national competition.
My idea would be simple and reasonably cost-effective: set up a continuous solid screen, with a simple repeating painted frieze viewed from the road side, e.g. cartoon-like standing stones (no summer or winter solstices, and for now at any rate, no seagulls or other scavenging species).
There should be a foam-filled cavity in the centre of the screen, chosen to cut down noise penetration.
How should the opposite side look, as seen through the eyes of visitors? Again, invite suggestions from the public!
My idea? It could be simply painted so as to match the colour of the turf, blotting out the view of the road and traffic with the bonus of that sound-insulation too.
Can the screen be made a more attractive feature in its own right, without being too dominant? Maybe – like giving it a wavy top.
How about a continuous line of slightly-angled mirrors, such that visitors get a reflection of themselves as minute figures against the standing stones, as if viewed from double the distance of separation, giving a better idea of the site’s isolated location on one of Europe’s largest stretches of chalk upland. (Yes, let’s not forget the longer history of Salisbury Plain, stretching back to the Cretaceous era approx. 65-145 million years ago, when it was submerged seabed accumulating skeletal remains and later fossils of minute sea creatures).
Cost? Suppose the screen cost a princely £2000/metre (conservative estimate). That’s £4million for 2km. Compare with the cost of the tunnel (£1.6 billion). It’s just 0.25% (1/400th if you prefer fractions). I know which quotation I prefer, speaking as someone who pays income tax on his State Pension.
Is it any wonder we have one of the lowest State pensions among developed nations, when we are prepared to squander an astronomical £1.6 billion on a short stretch of A-road?
I blame the corrupting influence of that entirely fictitious, all-pervasive A word (Astronomical, as in “Stonehenge is believed to have served as an astronomical observatory… “)
Did it heck! It was a pre-crematorium, designed to provide a safe and comfortable perch for avian flesh-scavenging species attracted from afar in large numbers …)


sciencebod15 February 2018 at 17:00
OK, so maybe it’s a bit too soon to expect feedback. Or there again, looking at the largely silent response to Tim’s recent postings, one maybe can’t expect any feedback, for any number of reasons upon which I don’t intend to comment or speculate.
I’ll wait a few days, and if it’s still “0 (further) comments” on this and Tim’s next postings, then I may decide to resume my previous postings (some 25 in all) on Stonehenge and its Neolithic predecessors via one or other of two of my three blogsites (either dormant or addressing different issues since mid 2016! One is specifically focused on Stonehenge (and Silbury Hill), the other tackling any number of general science topics of current interest.
If there are any objections to my copying and pasting from
this site, notably my own comments or those of others, then please say so now (though as an interactive blogger I reserve the right to quote comments appearing here without attribution to specific contributors).

Colin Berry (aka sciencebod)


sciencebod 18 February 2018 at 10:39
Hmmm. We seem to have reached a dead end where this site is concerned. Shame, it looked quite promising initially. Thanks however to Neil Wiseman and others for the brief glimmers of light … and occasionally shade…
In a few days time, I’ll add a new posting to one of my two sites (I have yet to decide which, each having its pros and cons). It will be the first on Stonehenge and my pre-cremation ‘sky burial’ thesis since April/May 2016.

Topic? Probably that Heel Stone for starters. How wiki can restrict itself to mumbo jumbo re “heel”, “friar”, “Devil” with no mention of the animal-like head (whether a bird, dog or Moray eel) doth pass all understanding. I’d attempt an edit, but have no desire to re-experience that man-made purgatory…no, worse than purgatory…


End of comments I and others placed on Tim Daw’s site (as of 13:30, 19 Feb, 2018).

Some more to follow from me later –  notably the failure/refusal of  the academic and even less formal internet blogging community to acknowledge my ‘sky burial’ pre-cremation thesis, one that I believe after years of study to integrate a lot of otherwise confusing speculation (like the endowing of Stonehenge  with a confusing split personality –  functioning both as a site for celebrating arrival of summer or winter solstices, while also a place for disposal of the dead!).

Comments invited sooner rather than later!

2nd instalment, 20th Feb 2018

Here’s what so far appears to be a typical blogsite page devoted to that Heel Stone:


There are some 16 photos of the stone itself, more when one includes views towards the monument. There are many, many references to the  (approximate  but not exact) alignment in relation to the summer and winter solstices.  There is a little on the Anglo-Saxon derivation of  the fanciful friar’s “heel” (why?). But there is nothing, I repeat NOTHING, on the animal-like appearance of the stone itself. Why not? Narratives are supposed to fit facts, not vice versa…

There’s no Comments facility on the above site (?), but there is an interesting account from the site’s owner (Simon Banton) of what motivated him to# set not just the above blog, but several, all devoted to Stonehenge.

I reproduce his biographical entry in full, and urge folk to read it:


Who did this?

Filming for BBC Countryfile at The Long Barrow in All Cannings

My name’s Simon Banton and I’m fascinated by humanity’s long obsession with the sky. I’ve been an amateur astronomer since I was 7 years old and about 20 years ago I started to take an interest in ancient monuments that seemed to embody this obsession in their design.

There’s a word for this – archaeoastronomy.

In 2005 I moved to Wiltshire to be closer to Stonehenge – a monument that everyone seems to know is aligned in some way to the movement of the Sun. I wanted the opportunity to study it more frequently than by the occasional visit or through coming to the dawn open access events at the solstices and equinoxes.

Stonehenge and its environs quickly turned from a keen hobby into a passion and I began volunteering for English Heritage as part of their Education team, meeting school parties and giving them a rundown on the history of the monument so their visits became more than simply a school trip to a pile of rocks in a field.

That turned into a full time paid job as a Historic Property Steward for 6 years, explaining the theories and current state of knowledge to some of the more than 1 million visitors that come to Stonehenge every year.

As an independent researcher I often found myself searching in vain for particular resources online – and the genesis of this website – the Stones of Stonehenge – was the failure to find anything that had a photo of every stone at Stonehenge taken from every angle.

A companion website – the Stonehenge Barrow Map – was born of the lack of a single resource that cross-referenced the burial mounds in the Stonehenge environs against their various data sources in a map format.

Sky at Night filming at Stonehenge

I have a career background in software and Internet technologies so, on the basis that no-one else was likely to build exactly what I needed, I decided to do them myself.

These days I no longer work for the organisation that’s tasked with caring for Stonehenge and instead I’m focused on writing articles about Stonehenge and doing guided tours of the landscape and the monument.

For the seasoned megalithomaniac, the Stonehenge Monument website offers a small but growing collection of more in-depth articles about some of the less obvious aspects of Stonehenge.

Please feel free to contact me if you’re interested in commissioning work or arranging a tour.

I’m also available for media interview and conferences or talks on the astronomical theories and aspects of Stonehenge, I’ve done work for the BBC’s Sky at Night and Stargazing Live! programs on that subject.

You can reach me using the email address:

hengemaster @ stonesofstonehenge . org . uk

I hope you find these websites useful, or at least interesting.



Archaeoastronomy?  Is that an established scientific discipline? As ever  I used wikipedia as first port of call.

Here’s the first paragraph, under the heading “Early History”. I’ve highlighted a particular word in red!

Stonehenge has an opening in the henge earthwork facing northeast, and suggestions that particular significance was placed by its builders on the solstice and equinox points have followed. For example, the summer solstice sun rose close to the Heel Stone, and the sun’s first rays shone into the centre of the monument between the horseshoe arrangement. While it is possible that such an alignment could be coincidental, this astronomical orientation had been acknowledged since William Stukeley drew the site and first identified its axis along the midsummer sunrise in 1720.[1]

Stukeley noticed that the Heel Stone was not precisely aligned on the sunrise. The drifting of the position of the sunrise due to the change in the obliquity of the ecliptic since the monument’s erection does not account for this imprecision. Recently, evidence has been found for a neighbour to the Heel Stone, no longer extant. The second stone may have instead been one side of a ‘solar corridor’ used to frame the sunrise.[2][3]

Ah, yes, that Heel Stone again, with no mention of its distinctive shape!  But it’s that word “acknowledged” that sticks in a certain craw – mine (being a retired postdoctoral scientist)!

Sorry, but science does not depend on ideas being “acknowledged”. It insists on hard corroborating evidence, for which so far I’ve found none (but shall continue searching).

Sorry, Simon, but so far I see no grounds for regarding your study of Stonehenge as a scientifically-based discipline. Who’s to say that you (and those other site alignment devotees  who congregate at those summer and/or winter solstices) are not pursuing a spurious correlation, aka coincidence, namely that the site was intentionally  aligned in accordance with the ANNUAL passage of the Sun across the sky. Who’s to say its alignment was intended merely to ensure that the enclosure within the “henge’s” chalk bank, before and after addition of timber posts and later standing stones and trithons, received optimal illumination throughout the hours of daylight?

Still Feb 20 (now 20:30)

Have just posted this comment to the site (current posting: Anatolian migrants arriving in Western Europe, Britain included , in Neolithic times, replacing the hunter-gatherer lifestyle with farming):

Come to think of it, the DNA-based ‘Anatolian migrant’ discovery (on topic!) provides an entirely new rationale for those causewayed enclosures, henges, stone circles etc in Britain, Ireland, France etc, at least initially.

It even provides an explanation for gaps in the north-east facing part of a banked-off circle (nope, nothing to do with solstices!).

If there’s anyone out there who’s interested in radically new (?) out-of-the-box thinking, then say so soon, failing which I’ll make it the next posting on my own site.

Clue: think geographical conditions pertaining to the Atlantic seaboard of Europe…



3rd instalment, Wed Feb 21

Here’s another clue to that overlooked ocean-related factor, one that would be hugely more important to Neolithic farmers on both a day-to-day AND  year-round basis than knowing which was the shortest or longest day of the year!

cardington blanked-out script

Anyone care to guess what is shown in the above diagram,  one that summarises a year-round phenomenon occurring, in this instance, at a particular location in Middle England?

4th instalment, Thursday Feb 22nd

OK, here’s the complete diagram!




Here’s the reason why the UK is said to  lack a climate, having weather only! The chart summarises the year-round wind direction and wind strength, Cardington,  Beds, England.   The prevailing winds are from the south-west, due to those cyclones that come in predominantly off the Atlantic from the direction of the Gulf of Mexico, bringing with them moisture and rain.

Now do you see why the Neolithic earthworks that ultimately evolved to give us the magnificent Stonehenge were frequently (but not always) aligned the way they were, roughly on a NE to SW axis, with  the gap for access often on the north or north-east side of the circle or oval?

It was nothing WHATSOEVER to do with summer or winter solstices, for which there’s scarcely a shred of supporting evidence. Our Neolithic forebears had more important things to worry about, like lighting their fires, keeping them going – not too fast, not too slow – giving periodic shelter  (maybe intermittent) to themselves and their livestock from high winds, winter gales especially.

In short, those causewayed enclosures, and later henges and even stone circles, functioned primarily as WINDBREAKS originally. Later, much later, when their bird-attracting properties were noted, they acquired a second function, using either the original enclosure or digging out new ones specialized for what I’ve previously called AFS (avian-facilitated skeletonization) as a preliminary to cremation.

Ah yes – those “second functions” that came later. Back in 2016 I suggested here and on my sciencebuzz site a role for the chalk banks of henges – namely to attract scavenger birds on the wing (with any NE gap serving to give illumination  of a new offering at or shortly after dawn – see the simple experiment above).

Well, I discovered some corroborating evidence just yesterday through reading the wiki entry on the Thornborough rings in Yorkshire. I’ve bolded the key sentences in red.


The three henges are almost identical in size and composition, each having a diameter of approximately 240 metres and two large entrances situated directly opposite each other. The henges are located around 550 m apart on an approximate northwest-southeast alignment, although there is a curious ‘dogleg’ in the layout. Altogether, the monument extends for more than a mile.

Archaeological excavation of the central henge has taken place. It has been suggested that its banks were covered with locally mined gypsum. The resulting white sheen would have been striking and visible for miles around. A double alignment of pits, possibly evidence of a timber processional avenue, extends from the southern henge.

The ‘dogleg’ in the layout appears to cause the layout of the henges to mirror the three stars of Orion’s Belt. The exact purpose of the henges is unclear though archaeological finds suggest that they served economic and social purposes as well as astronomical ones.

Note the intrusion of the usual astronomical silliness (“Orion’s Belt” – oh purleese!)

Yes, think of that added gypsum  (calcium sulphate, CaSO4) as a substitute for the white chalk or limestone (CaCO3) that was proving its worth elsewhere..

(The local geology immediately adjacent to the Thornborough henges is apparently sand and gravel, currently the subject of much controversy owing to the encroachment of a local open-cast quarrying firm).

One has sometimes to search diligently for  that oh-so-crucial “corroborating evidence”, leaving no stone (or in this instance masking layer of topsoil!)  unturned.

Archaeoastronomists, especially those who bang on endlessly about the Sun, Moon, Orion’s Belt etc,  please note…






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Here’s how I think Stonehenge was constructed, and why it needed those carpentry joints…

WordPress has excelled itself, managing to lose this posting when I hit the Publish key!

Quick repair job: here’s the new image that conveyed this blogger’s latest thinking.

new trilithon 1 aligned plus mound penultimate for blog

The secret is to slide the lintel up the artificial earth ramp ON ITS SIDE,  parking immediately behind the tops of the stone uprights, such that the mortise holes face OUTWARDS, towards the reader. When tenon and mortises are correctly aligned in two dimensions (horizontal and vertical) the lintel is then TIPPED OVER such that tenons slot into the mortices. The arch-like structure is then loosely locked together, sufficently to allow work to proceed safely to completion (remove earth ramp, ram hardcore into gaps beyween uprights and original subsoil).

Afterthought (added 26 Jan 18!)

In fact, the beauty of those mortise and tenon fixtures is that having installed the upright ‘pillars’ in holes that allow for some movement, the next step, i.e. adding the horizontal transom,  requires the constructors to locate  just ONE of the two joints initially. With that first of two ends secured, it can then be used as a pivot, allowing one to swing the other end round like the hand of a clock until it’s close to the other joint. It’s then just a matter of leverage, end-lifting, proabably aided by temporary support, and final lowering down into place so as to have both ends permanently secured!

 (Afterthought: the ramp on the right would probably have been much longer to reduce the steepness of the gradient.  It may also have had embedded timber tracks, laid lengthwise or maybe transversely like railway tracks, no doubt  greased or wetted with water,  to reduce friction. Pulling, via several tow ropes, would have been safer than pushing! Those who audibly questioned the need for a Stonehenge would probably have found themselves assigned to a pushing party.).

It was accompanied by a sizeable amount of text – all of it vanished, possibly for ever, there being no “restore previous draft”key visible.

I’ll try to reconstruct as best I can over the coming days. The caption to my schematic diagram above is new post-apocalyptic text.

As for Google, words fail me….


google search carpentry joints

What does Google think it’s playing at, ignoring  and striking out my very first search term,  one of just three, in this instance “stonehenge”?  Google needs to take a long hard look at itself, and make serious efforts to get back on track, responding first and foremost to the needs of the RESEARCHER.


Despite my increasing annoyance with the antics of the Google search engine, one has to be realistic, and say “If you can’t beat them, join them”.  I refer to Google’s own blog hosting platform, namely Blogger Blogspot, which I presently use and have used in the past. By and large that host’s software is a lot simpler, straightforward and less accident/disaster/apocalypse prone than the present site’s. I don’t know who designed the tabs and labels for bloggers on this site: if I did, I’d be tempted to hand them a blank sheet of paper and say “Now start again from scratch, and this time choose words that give some clue as to what this tab or label does when clicked, or which reveals its content when one hovers the pointer …

There’s also the matter of search engine visibility. While Google remains the world’s most popular seacrh engine, one has to be realistic and note that a posting to Google’s Blogger site appears almost instantly in listings under the appropriate search terms, if only “Past Hour”, “Past 24 hours” etc to begin with. Contrast that with WordPress where sometimes it’s 2 or 3 days before the Google web crawler picks up on its presence. (That is not right, incidentally: I do not see why Google cannot make an accommodation with major blog hosters like WordPress to ensure instant indexing of their new postings to ensure a level playing field).

If I see the need for any more postings  on Stonehenge/Avebury/Silbury Hill etc, they will be on my sciencebuzz site, this being my last one here.

So what conclusions have I arrived at, after first deliberating on the assorted enigmas for some 4 years (interrupted by a long digression onto the Turin Shroud)?

Here they are in summary form:

  1. Stonehenge, Avebury and other standing stones served as bird perches, the latter being encouraged to ‘adopt’ the site for the purpose of excarnation of the recently deceased. The primary purpose of excarnation was to (a) release the soul and (b) to isolate the skeleton that was then further cleansed by cremation. The cremated bones were then either buried in situ, OR interred in a nearby round or long burial barrow OR taken back by relatives to the deceased’s home.
  2. Silbury Hill was a repository for soft organs, probably harvested prior to avian or other excarnation , possibly the heart only. Silbury was what might be called a local speciality provided at the Avebury site/complex, some distance from the Stonehenge/Durrington Walls/Woodhenge/barrow complex some 25 miles away. The soft organs were probably interred with a handful of the deceased’s local turf and soil, probably with a deliberate inclusion of earthworms to ensure complete integration between old and new soil.
  3. The carpentry aka woodworking joints at Stonehenge were an aid to construction, rather then necessary for final stability (see this post). They served to fix and partly stabilise the intermediary arch-like geometry before removal of the earthern “formwork” i.e. the ramp followed by placement of rammed rubble around the base of each pillar for final anchoring of the structure.
  4. The bluestones were chosen for the Mark 1 Stonehenge because – being smaller than the Mark 2 sarsens, the working surfaces  i.e. tops were at eye level and thus visible.  They would have quickly become unsightly with uneaten flesh, bird droppings etc.  Thus the desirability of importing igneous bluestone in place of local sarsen sandstone. That’s because rocks of igneous origin, i.e. soldified magma and/or lava,  (e.g. the predominant dolerites and rhyolites of  Preseli and other Welsh ‘bluestones’)  are non-porous and liquid -repellent, and thus easier to keep clean and presentable.  It may be the lack of local bluestone that prompted the construction of the sarsen megaliths at Stonehenge. Being so much higher, the tops were largely out of human sight, and thus seen as safer more attractive places for scavenger birds (crows, ravens, rooks, seagulls etc) to perch, feed, roost, pass the time of day and maybe even nest.  Added note: 26 Jan 2018: the above section is not as clear as it should be, and will be re-written in the next few days.                
  5.  Automatic numbering that can’t be de-activated is something else that WordPress needs to look at!
  6. Postscript added May 23, 2016

This blogger’s thoughts on Stonehenge, and indeed 9 other sites with circles of timber or standing stone, have now gelled. Here’s the overall conclusion, inspired by taking another close look at that so-called “Seahenge”on the Norfolk coast.



stonehenge get real posting may 23 2016

Posting on my sciencebuzz site, May 23, 2016


Link to the above scienecebuzz posting


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Might the standing stones of Stonehenge and Avebury have been purpose-built for ‘sky burial’, providing a secure perch for crows or maybe seagulls to roost or nest?

Notice the abundance of passing visitors on the wing.  Birds like to have a safe place to perch, or indeed to roost overnight.

034449_a9c7b03b bird's resting place stonehenge close-up



Is what we are seeing here merely an incidental feature of Stonehenge and similar sites with standing stones, including the simpler ones at Avebury?

36795d3e041457399c2c67eedd21033a crow avebury

Crow at Avebury (single standing stones, no lintel cross-pieces).

This blogger/retired scientist, with an insatiable appetite for unsolved enigmas (Turin Shroud , or  biogenesis of life on Earth etc) says NO. The attraction of those Neolithic standing stones to birds, carrion feeders especially, was NO ACCIDENT. They were set up specifically for that purpose. But there had to be an added attraction – food as well as a place to rest.

So what was the source of food?

Well, here’s where the discussion gets a little difficult.

Long, long before our Neolithic (late Stone Age) ancestors were farming the chalk uplands of Wiltshire, their ancestors, the  forest-dwelling hunter-gathers were confronted with an age-old problem – how to dispose of the dead, efficiently, while leaving some permanent memorial. However, being pre-Christian pagans they had preoccupations of their own, ones that may no longer seem obvious to the modern mind. Like how should the body be handled so as to permit release of the soul, i.e. spirit? Here’s where things get even more difficult: apparently the mortal flesh of the body was considered to be an impediment to escape of the soul. Anything that removed flesh from bone, no matter how  off-putting a sight in the short term, provided peace of mind to the living,   consonant with peace and immortality for the dead. A number of ploys, strategies were available, the details of which need not concern us right now. Suffice it to say that a popular one that existed in ancient times, and which survives to this day in various parts of the world, was the so-called “sky burial”.

05a9e988991d3f2ceb4c89f65fb7df63 tower of silence

Artist’s portrayal of an Eastern ‘Tower of Silence’ . Note vultures at the top, cleaned bones in the central well.


(To keep this posting of a reasonable length, I’m assuming the reader is broadly familiar with the meaning of ‘sky burial’, still extant in some parts of the world under alternative names, e.g. “Towers of Silence”. If not then see the image above, and maybe the wiki entry on sky burial too)

Recent excavations in the Sussex Weald (see link below) uncovered these structures which date back to 4000 BC or earlier. They are considered to be places where the dead were laid out for excarnation (defleshing).


Fig. 7 photograph of square enclosure[15]_0

Designed for excarnation of the dead (“defleshing”) by birds?

Here’s the authors’ own words.

Quote from the Historyextra site that supplied the above photograph (my bolding) :

“The composite arrowheads we found show that people were exploiting the woodland. And we suspect the small square enclosure that we discovered – a gully around a square, raised platform – was used as a mortuary.

We think the dead would have been laid out for birds to pick off the flesh. We suspect this is a Neolithic structure, dating to 4,000-2,000 BC.

Yes,  opportunist feeders, especially massed scavenger birds,  would have been considered agents par excellence for accomplishing an unpleasant task with maximum dispatch, least bother.

In passing, the title for this posting originally specified “carrion crows” as the likely scavenger. On reflection, one must not overlook another species that is highly adaptable – namely the seagull (especially herring and lesser black-backed gulls). In modern Britain they used to come far inland from their normal coastal habitat, being attracted by the rich offerings of landfill sites (probably less so now with separate kitchen-waste recycling via biogas plants).

_46754655_hi008296032 seagulls landfill site

Seagulls, landfill site, Gloucester, England (from BBC).

Their adaptability re nesting sites is legendary.


gull nesting sites

Inland seagulls and their squatting tendency

Might safe and secure nesting exolain why the builders of Stonehenge went to so much trouble to make the stones secure, with both mortise-and-tenon AND tongue-in-groove joints?

mortise and tenon joint stonehenge      mortise on stonehenge upright

One would’t want the lintels rocking even ever so gently if wishing to attract a year-round resident population of feathered-friends …

So how does the idea of Stonehenge as a site for ‘sky burial’ fit in with nearby Neolithic sites (notably Durrington Walls and Woodhenge)? That grouping is full of possible interpretations and scenarios, some already broached here and on the writer’s sciencebuzz site some 4 years ago, notably in connection with wintertime communal feasting of young pigs. Let’s not be too quick to make sense of a welter of competing information. Let’s go some 25 miles north of Stonehenge to another iconic grouping of Neolithic sites, all under the care of English Heritage, namely Avebury Henge and Stone Circle, Silbury Hill and West Kennet Long Barrow. Here’s a Google map showing their close proximity to one another:

google map silbury etc third try

The red stars show the locations of Avebury (top), Silbury Hill (centre) and West Kennet Long Barrow (bottom). Note the scale (bottom right, highlighted in yellow) – a mere 200 metres.


Here’s a list of approxiamte datings for the major Neolithic sites in Wiltshire which this non-historian has culled from different internet sources, and is happy (until told otherwise) to take on trust:


West Kennet Long Barrow: 3650BC. Finally decommissioned  approx.  2500BC

Avebury stone circles: 2750 BC (as late as 2400BC for the linear avenues).

Stonehenge 3 (II) from wiki – sarson arrival: 2,600 – 2,400 BC but continuing later with arrival of bluestones.

Durrington Walls: 2525 – 2470BC

Marlborough Mound/Marden Henge: 2400BC

Silbury Mound : 2400-2300 BC

Woodhenge: 2300BC

So here’s a scenario that might have been operating in approx 2,500 – 2,300 BC, initially involving Avebury and West Kennet Long Barrow, and later involving the approximately midway upstart ‘cardionecropolis’  (yup, my description) that we now call Silbury Hill.

Someone in the community dies, possibly a respected figure, deserving of a ‘proper send-off’. Cremation? No, oh-so-last millennium, wasteful of increasingly scarce firewood, needed for cooking and heating. Simple burial? No, ruled out on both practical and religious grounds. Chalk bedrock in the Wiltshire downs, with no metal implements, merely antler picks, makes burial laborious and time-consuming. But there’s an age-old fear re burial – might it not prevent the soul exiting from the buried, mortal remains to the skies above?  Solution: transfer the body to Avebury, taking a basket of local turves and soil fauna (earthworms etc)  from the deceased’s home patch to  our putative excarnation site where it’s handed over to specialists. The first thing they do is excise the heart (thus the two smoothed-off flint-sharpening stones at the southern entrance to Avebury)  which is enveloped  in the turves, then tied around with plaited grass or string to create a compact receptacle for interment (see posting immediately previous to this one). The grieving relative says a temporary farewell to the departed, walks the short distance to Silbury mound where the package is interred behind a sarsen stone at a spot decreed by Silbury’s guardians. Meanwhile back at Avebury the corpse minus heart is laid out for excarnation by the resident bird population. Days, probably weeks later the bereaved returns to collect an ensemble of relatively clean bones. They are then taken home for safe-keeping and veneration OR in the case of VIPs maybe transferred to West Kennet Long Barrow, or one or other similar temporary repository for bones, maybe for months, possibly for years. (It does appear there was a steady coming-and-going of bones/dislocated skeletons at West Kennet, which ceased with the arrival of the final consignment of bones).

The next task is to fit that other grouping Stonehenge/Durrington Walls/Woodhenge into a coherent framework based around excarnation as the preferred option for disposal of the dead. In fact an attempt was made to do just that on both this and the writer’s sciencebuzz site, introducing a new concept that I termed ‘secondary necrophagy‘. It seems such a waste of ‘disposable’ high class protein to feed it to wild, undomesticated birds. Why not comminute it, and use it to keep captive pigs fed in the winter months especially?  Response/feedback to that idea? Zilch! Ought one now to try a second time, especially if the arguably less gut-wrenching ideas re Avebury and Silbury were hopefully to gain some traction?  Only time will tell. This writer is in no hurry to ‘sew up the story’. Neolithic Britain is not the kind of topic that can be neatly sewn up in a hurry…

Here’s a final image, just discovered. Try to imagine those starlings (?) are crows or seagulls. Regardless of species, they clearly appreciate their ‘bird’s eye view’ of Stonehenge and Salisbury Plain.


Colin Berry PhD

April 17, 2016.

Herts. UK



Next posting? Isn’t Stonehenge supposed to have served primarily as an astronomical calendar, signifying the longest day in summer (or shortest day in winter)? Isn’t it asking a lot to suggest it was dual purpose?  And what about those bluestones, carried all the way from the Preseli mountains in west Wales, whether by glaciers or by human beings? Why the preference for bluestones for STONEhenge Mk1 (arranged in 2 concentric arcs we’re told) over local sarsens (silicified sandstone) – the latter present in abundance in Wiltshire while scarcely getting a look-in where Mk1 Stonehenge was concerned?

Both those key questions will be addressed.

 Update: April 18: here’s a link to a new posting on my sciencebuzz site:

Why the need for all those Neolithic standing stones at Stonehenge and Avebury? Why were igneous bluestones required from the distant Welsh mountains?


New update: Monday April 25: see new posting on my sciencebuzz site:

Stonehenge can be thought of as a Flintstone-era funeral parlour. Its sales pitch was soul-releasing sky burial AND, by way of bonus, a compact take-away package of cremated bones.


New update: Friday April 29:

Ideas are evolving rapidly. See the latest posting on my sciencebuzz site:

Might Stonehenge have been designed as an easily-spottable feeding station for high-flying seagulls – as perhaps was the nearby “Cursus”?


Photo-archive (placed here to avoid overloading my current sciencebuzz posting, 23rd May, 2016).

Chapter 2 Page 1

Archive 1: more details later



animal gnawing

Archive 2- more details later

peck marks

Archive 4 – more details later.

Posted in Avebury stone circle, silbury hill, Stonehenge | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 6 Comments

New Silbury soul-release model can explain the rounded sarsen stones implanted concave-side down into sides of the growing Neolithic mound.


The following extract is taken from the informative yet perplexing book entitled “The Story of Silbury Hill” (Jim Leary and David Field, 2010, English Heritage). We start on page 39 for this, the first and most important instalment of this posting.

The authors are relating the later stages of the 1849 probe, then under the direction of John Merewether, Dean of Hereford Cathedral, involving lateral tunnels that began in the side of the mound, approximately at ground level.

 “Merewether, who had visited the excavations en route to the meeting and taken a room at the Waggon and Horses at Beckhampton, remained to observe progress and instructed that lateral excavations should be made to both east and west. A number of silicified sandstone boulders known as sarsen stones were encountered in one of the lateral excavations on the east side, and ‘they were much worn and similar to those found in the surrounding fields’ (ref 35), Merewether reported that they were:

“placed with their concave surfaces downwards, favouring the line of the heap … as is frequently seen in small barrows and casing as it were the mound. On top of some of these were observed fragments of bone, and small sticks, as of bushes … and two or three pieces of the ribs of either the ox or red deer … and also the tine of a stags antler.”

Can these highly specific details, ones that at first sight would seem to have no rhyme or reason, be accommodated into the latest update of this blogger’s thinking re Silbury, namely that it served for composting of human (probably) soft tissue remains, possibly the heart only.

Link to this blogger’s recent article on the ancient-origins site.

See also the follow-up posting, posted just yesterday (April 11)  that immediately precedes this one.

Yes, I do believe they can, and this highly schematic diagram, cobbled together with MS Paint, shows how:

new sarsen

 Captive earthworms (see author’s previous postings) have been omitted, not being central to the sarsen narrative!


The sarsen was needed to protect the interred soft tissue remains from animal scavengers.  The sarsen was implanted concave-side down so as to provide a cavity that would encapsulate most or all of the interred package. Why the animal bone, sticks, ribs etc? Inevitably there would be an occasional animal intruder to the site – a dog, fox, rodent etc – one with a keen sense of smell, picking up the presence of flesh. It would sniff around the sarsen initially, and maybe attempt to lift or paw away under the stone, but its weight and rounded shape (yes, we’re told elsewhere the sarsens used tended to be rounded) would defeat it. That would leave it with little option other than to be content with a ‘consolation prize’ in the form of a few animals ribs etc. Even then, the ‘free gift’  would have to be extricated from a thicket of sticks, and being something that required patient chewing would probably mean the animal needing to vacate the mound to work on it laboriously but safely elsewhere. End-result: the interred package stays intact until Mother Nature, assisted by those captive earthworms, has done the necessary, and the Neolithic bereaved can be content with the thought that the soul of the deceased has been released from the mortal remains. The latter needless to say finally becomes integrated back into something that is indistinguishable from rich, wholesome-smelling soil.

Further additions to follow in a day or two, chiefly  to ‘tie up some loose ends’ re the likely mode of packaging of the mortal remains, the use of rough-hewn rather than rounded sarsens in the outermost chalk revetment of late-stage Silbury etc.


Postscript: Wow, I’ve just chanced upon this article from the Independent published 9 years ago, in which it’s proposed by Jim Leary and others that Silbury is a monument to the souls of the departed, and that each soul is represented by – guess what?- yes a sarsen stone!

Now if I could just persuade JimL to go back inside and take a closer look at some of the “organic” material that he reported seeing inside the mound, like layers of “black soil”, “mud”  etc. They might not be be recognizable as 4,500 year old human remains, but there might be ways of demonstrating that they represent accumulations of worm casts derived therefrom. There’s a Silbury literature on the calcite granules of worm casts that were used for radiocarbon dating that I’ve so far not discussed.  Perhaps I should, especially as I appear to be the only one thus far to have proposed a direct cause-and-effect relationship between (on the one hand)  those mortal remains,  long since “disappeared” – if as I believe it was soft tissue only that was interred, not bones – and  those humble worm casts on the other, constituting a greater proportion of the internal dark layers of Silbury Hill than realized thus far.

 Second instalment: Wed April 13

My quoting for the L&F book continues on the same Page 39,  with reference it seems to the 19th century Merewether’s observations at the very heart of Silbury, i.e. the end of the lateral excavation tunnel.  Yes, it seems that what follows relates to the  central mound, the first-formed one with its abundant turves, snail shells etc, presumably what L&F describe as the ‘organic mound’

My bolding:

“Merewether also noted that there were ‘great quantities of moss still in a state of comparative freshness’ (Ref 37) and that it still retained its colour.He believed that this material, together with the freshwater shells, had come from a moist location and thought that it must have been derived from the west, north or east sides of the Hill where the Beckhampton Brook flowed past the foot of the mound. Sealing the turf stack was a dense black layer of organic material containing fragments of small branches and emitting a peculiar smell. In addition, fragments of what he thought were plaited grass or string were discovered in this organic deposit. This was not recorded in any of the later excavations and is likely to have been fungal mycelium, probably introduced in (the) 1776 (excavation, vertical shaft).”

Passing lightly over the “peculiar smell”, which would certainly betray the presence of something organic, something had maybe composted under less than ideal conditions perhaps (anaerobic?) and not necessarily of plant origin (need I say more?) we find that fascinating but infuriatingly brief reference to “plaited grass or string” which is immediately explained away as “fungal mycelium”.

I guess we’ll never know whether it was plaited grass/string or fungal mycelium,  given the description applies to the 1849 investigation which was unlikely to have preserved material for future generations to re-examine (or am I being overly pessimistic?).

However, I am not prepared to be summarily put off the scent (no pun intended) regarding what I consider an important possible clue as to the real purpose of Silbury Hill. Given there are said to be scores, probably hundreds of sarsen stones in the interior of the Hill, and given I consider each to be the marker for an interment, as per diagram above, then here’s a prediction. (We science bods are given to making predictions, considering them to be the sine qua non of the scientific method):

Behind each sarsen stone there will be found at the very minimum either (a) a cavity or (b) a sizeable amount of darkish soil which under the microscope will be found to have the signature of a worm cast – namely calcite granules or (c) more remnants of what appears to be plaited grass or string, and which indeed will be found to be plaited grass or string or (d) combinations of two or more from (a) to (c).

Why? Because a package had been interred behind each sarsen some 4,500 years ago, which contained human mortal remains, maybe as little as the heart of the deceased, maybe more. That ritualistic consignment had been brought to the Silbury composting site by the relatives, probably in a simple receptacle like a basket or string bag, enveloped in turves from the deceased’s home, and probably accompanied, intentionally, by a number of earthworms, because that I propose is how things were done in Neolithic Britain in that era, and for very sound practical reasons (which will be reiterated later).

Final instalment to this posting- started 11:00, Wed 13 April

I have been keeping this one till last, since it’s arguably the most tendentious, yet at the same time focuses on an aspect of those hugely significant sarsen stones that cannot be ignored. Indeed, it’s so tricky, so tentatative, or as some might later say, tendentious, that it will be written in sub-instalments.

The starting point of this section is in fact the end-phase of Silbury construction, the capping off with chalk, once the decision had been made that the mound had reached its maximum capacity as regards interment sites. That was an inevitability of course, given that the mound is conical, not cylindrical, with progressively less ‘floor area’ as it ascends, to say nothing of increasing physical effort needed by the bereaved to ascend to the later working levels. What happens then? Well, it’s my guess that the last generation of Silbury builders looked at what had evolved from small beginnings, with no preconceived plan to build a dramatic landscape feature, and thought: “We can’t leave it as an incomplete, untopped-out eyesore. It’s in fact well on its way to becoming the 8th Wonder of the World, correction, the less-anachronistic equivalent. So let’s do the decent thing and finish it off artistically. How shall we do that?”

Well, the rest as they say is history, and that involved cutting still more chalk from around the base and moving it to the top, but that was and could not have been a mere dumping operation. It involved the construction of the so-called chalk revetment walls, aka chalk rubble walls. These encircled the mound, leaning inwards for strength and support, and allowed for free  drainage of rain water, said to be a major reason for why the Hill exists to this day.  Having thus briefly introduced the “chalk revetment wall” one is now in a position to introduce an element of the unexpected, namely a conjunction of chalk AND sarsen stones and/or boulders into that wall. That involves going to Pages 110/111 of L&F to read Richard Atkinson’s description of the chalk revetment at the uppermost levels of Silbury Hill. Stand by then folks for some more cut-and-paste, correction, laborious manual copying from the book into my word-processor, then pasting.

Quote (lightly edited): my bolding

 “As the final remnants of the topsoil and subsoil were … shovelled and scraped away from the main …  excavation trench on the summit, the tops of these chalk revetment walls became visible.

A small patch within one of the walls, however, looked distinctly different, and as excavation proceeded …  the reason became obvious. Rather than using chalk rubble to build the wall, this small area  (3m x 5m) was made from broken pieces of sarsen rubble.

Lying alongside them were pieces of picks made from red deer antler. These sarsen stones are extraordinarily heavy, certainly when compared to similar size chalk blocks…   Further these sarsen fragments seem to have been deliberately placed next to the antler. A closer examination of Atkinson’s archive slides from his 1970 excavation, revealed similar clusters of sarsen stones within the walls dotted throughout his much larger trench … this strange phenomenon seems widespread throughout the later construction phases of the mound. Indeed, one is visible eroding out of the present pathway close to the summit…

The sarsen fragments on the summit were different to those seen within the tunnel. The fragments from the summit were formed largely of broken pieces … contrasting with the whole rounded boulders recovered from inside the mound…

So why the sarsen stones in a smallish part of the revetment, and ‘out-of-character’ broken rather rounded ones?

First, what would be surprising would Silbury having been finished off entirely with chalk, leaving no external and visible sign of its role in some 100 years or so of late Neolithic development. It was after all a sacred site within a pagan but probably spiritual society, one that revered the dead and went to some trouble to give them – or a symbolic part thereof – a proper send-off.

Given the special significance attached to sarsen stones as putative markers for each interment, what better way to discreetly flag up the mound’s raison d’etre than to incorporate some sarsens into the external revetment.

It’s admittedly a token gesture at first sight, and more so given the sarsens would only have been clearly visible at the top. Wouldn’t ground level have been a more logical place?

Yes, probably, so might there have been a different rationale? Maybe. The capping off would have been done when there was still space for a small number of final interments, maybe as few as one or two. Might the sarsens have been intended as a portal through which the final installation would or could be made? Maybe a ‘future insertion for someone very important was envisaged, given the dominant and commanding position at the top of Silbury.

Why use sarsens with irregular rather than rounded shape? Let’s dispose straightaway of the idea that all the rounded sarsens had been used up. If that were the problem, the rounded variety would simply have been  brought in from out of area. It hardly needs saying that Neolithic folk thought nothing of lugging megaliths over vast distances. Even if one’s sceptical at the idea that Stonehenge’s bluestones were translocated from the Preseli mountains of Wales to Salisbury Plain, the even larger sarsens in the outer circle of standing stones allegedly were transported from the Marlborough Downs, on Silbury’s doorstep but some 25 miles from Stonehenge.

There’s an alternative explanation. Had rounded sarsens been used then that portion of revetments could have been mistaken for the site of an occupied interment. Choosing broken irregular sarsens would have  signalled the presence of an access point for a then as yet unutilized location within the mound.

Almost there : just a little more needed – expect it to arrive in the next day or two.

In the next post I shall be addressing the 64000 question: why the theory presented here continues to be ignored and indeed shunned? I shall be commenting on the inappropriateness of judging Neolithic societies by modern day standards. I shall be defending the manner of disposing of the dead proposed here as one that was rooted firmly in the realities of living on the chalk uplands of Wiltshire where there were no easy options. We are discussing an era of human history that preceded the Bronze and Iron ages – thus no metal tools to dig graves in bedrock chalk, and an increasingly deforested habitat, which while attractive for early pastoralists, was one in which timber was too valuable to be waste on cremation via funeral pyres, being needed to stay warm and alive, especially in the winter months.

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Genesis of a new theory for Neolithic Silbury Hill – a gradual merging of multiple, soul-releasing compost heaps.




Fig 1 Silbury Hill, approach from car park.

Silbury Hill, Wiltshire, England  (“the largest man-made mound in Europe”), approx 4,500 years old, as seen from the visitors’ car park (notice the open-air display board with information on the early stages of construction, as revealed by archaeological investigations).

Hello. Sorry to have been gone so long (nigh on 4 years!). My “Shroud of Turin” project took longer than expected – well over 300 postings on  sciencebuzz and my specialist site, to say nothing of 2000+ comments  I’m told on Dan Porter’s now-retired shroudstory site (this blogger even getting an appreciative nod in Porter’s final two postings).

Yup, I’ve drawn a line under the ‘now- not-quite-so-enigmatic’  Shroud.  Here’s a link to my final conclusions, which need not concern us here.

Back then to Stonehenge and Silbury Hill, especially the latter, where my latest thinking can be seen on the splendid ancient-origins website.

Yup, I discovered the site a mere 6 weeks or so ago through googling that Shroud (sorry to mention it again) and responded to a comment with some new research. Acting Editor Liz Leafloor (standing in for April Holloway, presently on maternity leave) placed an appreciative note in the Comments. I then spotted a fairly recent feature on the site posted December last year on artificial “burial” mounds, Silbury Hill included, which while acknowledging that no burial had ever been discovered in Silbury, despite numerous investigatory shafts and tunnels, seemed to assume that had been its initial function, hinting that something might finally turn up.   Xxxx  said the same back in xxxx, suggesting that there was a burial chamber that had been missed through being situated off-centre. (will track down refs in next day or two).

Well, all the old thinking came flooding back from my brief internet presence here in 2012, preceded by some kite-flying on my sciencebuzz site.

To recap: this blogger does consider Silbury Hill to have been a burial site, but one with a difference.  It wasn’t a place for interring whole bodies – or if it was, the burial was a temporary one, intended to reduce a corpse to a skeleton via natural decay processes, then retrieving the skeleton and/or bones for storage elsewhere. That kind of purposeful “defleshing” has been described elsewhere in the Neolithic archaeology literature, as an example of “excarnation”, which if deploying natural agents in the soil (bacteria, fungi, earthworms), or larger wildlife (e.g. feathered carrion feeders in ‘sky burial’  aka ‘towers of silence’ ) is further qualified as “passive excarnation”. That’s to distinguish it from “active excarnation” which is the brutally no-nonsense speeding up by means of sharp implements to deflesh the skeleton. Yes, it’s starting to get grisly again, and is no doubt the explanation for why the ideas expressed here 4 years ago not only failed to gain traction, but, if the truth be told,  no interest or attention either. Read: no feedback! So why has the ancient-origins acquaintance made me decide on a second attempt to address this difficult area, which admittedly risks ‘de-romanticizing’ Silbury Hill for some folk, if seen primarily as an aid to excarnation whether passive or active?

Answer: these few words that introduced the Dec 2015 article:

“  The people from the Stone Age also venerated their ancestors, so they had to make sure that their dead were at peace. If they looked after the spirits of the dead, then they believed that the dead would look after the living. The spirit had to be released so that it would not remain trapped inside of the body and it was believed that the spirit could leave the body only once all flesh had disappeared from the bones. At times, when the dead were not pleased with their funeral rites, it was believed that they could return to haunt the living.

Thus Prehistoric people built burial mounds made of earth or stones. They were designed as homes for the deceased and somewhat resembled the prehistoric dwellings of the living.”

Yup, it’s all in the presentation, isn’t it? Shift the focus from the mortal remains and the unspeakable methods by which they were degraded or stripped from the skeleton. Focus instead on the immortal soul, needing to be freed from those pesky mortal remains, and hey presto one has become an archaeological spin doctor!

The next step was to approach ancient-origins, asking it the site might be interested in a summary of ideas that were 4 years old, and to be re-presented in a more soul-oriented manner. The response was encouraging and I quickly penned a 1000 words or so. But two things were lacking: 1. Photographs that were my own, rather than grabbed from internet photoarchives with potential copyright issues, and 2.  Solid science, as distinct from long-shot speculation.

The first was easily addressed. I and the wife paid a visit to Silbury Hill, an easy two- hour drive,  together with the  surrounding  jam-packed Neolithic monuments (West Kennet Long Barrow, Avebury Stone Circle and the less well known Marlborough Mound on private property – Marlborough College!). The camera was clicking away the entire time, and the English Heritage trust thoughtfully provided an open-air display board with some of the very same artwork (probably copyright) that had so appealed to me in the Leary/Field book.

composite 3 pix from silbury display board

We have Judith Dobie to thank for these splendid ‘artist’s impressions’ of the initial stages of Silbury Hill construction, based on numerous archaeological investigations, starting in 1776. One can see them in Leary and Field’s book “The Srory of Silbury Hill” (2010, English Heritage) and, as indicated, on the display board at the visitor’s car park on the A4 road adjacent to the Hill (from which these pictures were taken and then arranged in a single line).

Now this is where it starts to get interesting,or at any rate, heads off in an entirely new direction that one will not find elsewhere in the literature, bar a few asides that will be listed later.

There’s a wealth of detail in the Leary/Field book regarding the complex manner in which Silbury Hill took shape, based on the finding of their own and earlier tunnelling investigations.  Those details cry out for explanation, but none is to be found in that otherwise splendid book. The L&F postion is summed up in this headling in the Mail: “It was all an accident”.

Silbury Hll Mound Solved – It was All an Accident

This blogger will be addressing those peculiar details of Silbury’s construction, described by the celebrated Atkinson as resembling a “layer cake” etc. But there was an enigmatic feature of the proto-Silbury, long before any complex layers were added. It’s what Leary refers to as the initial “organic mound”. That’s when science and art co-synergized, with those splendid and haunting reconstructions in the L&F  book  (see above) of the first stages of Silbury construction. One has to look hard in the book to find who produced the artwork: it’s one Judith Dobie, mentioned briefly on the rear fly leaf.

(Yes, the same three ink washes as on the display board appear in L&F’s book).

It’s that term “organic” that intrigues this blogger. It is not defined in the book. Indeed, it slips in almost via the back door so to speak, and it took a patient trawl through many pages to form a view as to what was meant or implied by “organic”. (Maybe any carbon-based material of plant or animal origin, regardless of degree of preservation?). The incentive for doing so should be clear, given this blogger’s view that Silbury was a home for at least some part or portion of the mortal remains of deceased Neolithic pastoralists settled on the wide open spaces of the Wiltshire chalk uplands.

OK, here’s the result of my homework, listing each and every manner in which Leary deployed the term “organic”.

It makes its first appearance on page 39, where, referring to the centre of the primary mound (gravel plus  replaced top soil) we read:

 “Merewether also noted that there  were ‘great quantities of moss still in a state of comparative freshness (ref No.37) and that it still retained its colour. He believed that this material, together with teh freshwater shells, had come from a moist location and thought it must have been derived from the west, north or east sides of the Hill where the Beckhampton Brook flowed past the foot of the mound. Sealing the turf stack was a desne layer of organic material containing fragments of small branches and emitting a peculiar smell. In addition fragments of what he thought were plaited grass or string were discovered in this organic deposit. This was not recorded in any of the later (ed. post 1849) excavations and is likely to have been fungal mycelium, probably introduced in 1776 (ed. first probe of mound interior via vertical shaft).


“Organic ” next appears on Page 62

Referring to the small central mound of gravel, covered by a mound of turf and topsoil, with description attributed to the celebrated Richard Atkinson in his 1968 tunneling:

“…four complex layers of contrasting black marshy soil, white chalk and coloured flint gravel with an overall diameter of some 34m and reaching an estimated depth of just over 5m…

”On removing a portion of turf they were astonished to see that it was still green…

“Not only plants but insect remains survived …  “flying ants” …”ants were lying dead in the turves long before becoming incorporated into the mound.”

:”over this organic phase was a large mound of chalk…”

Presumably “organic” refers to both relatively well-preserved recognizable planr and animal matter AND to dark coloured muds etc of less certain composition.

Oh heck, this can wait till later. Let’s cut straight to the chase. The proto-Silbury can indeed be described as an “organic mound”, but one of very peculiar and, at first sight, bizarre construction. Indeed, its construction needs to be known to anyone wishing to get to grips with the enigma that is (or was???) Silbury Hill. To that end I cobbled together these two diagrams using MS Paint to summarise whay Leary and Field expressed in words, and Judith Dolby with he pen and brush.


Fig 6 My schematic diagram of first 3 stages in life of Silbury Hill

LEFT: initial site with top soil and turf overlaying clay/flint subsoil and bedrock chalk. CENTRE: top soil removed to expose subsoil. RIGHT: heap of gravel placed on subsoil (to deter downward earthworm migration?) 

Fig 7 My schematic diagram of next 3 stages ,

LEFT: the top soil  and turf has been placed back on top of the gravel, maybe more ordered than shown. CENTRE: additonal layers of soil, subsoil have  etc have been added, together with a mysterious dark material (wormcasts?). RIGHT: excavations have been made (3 are shown beneath the red ? marks) and then back-filled with the same excavated material. Was something being ritually interred with that back-fill? Mortal remains of recently deceased?


So what ate the unusual indeed unexpected features you may ask?

There are three:

  1. What’s described as the tallest man-made mound in Europe, predominantly chalk construction, began as a mound of GRAVEL (you know, that stuff that easily slips and settles on itself if you try to make too tall a pile). WHY GRAVEL?
  2. The gravel was not simply placed onto unprepared ground. No, the topsoil was removed down to subsoil first, to a base that is described as clay-with-flints, which one is tempted to describe as “non-organic” 9hardly the most logical start for an “organic mound” one migh tthink.
  3. It gets worse. The second addition, placed on top of the (shifting?) gravel heap is described as having plant matter, some amazingly well-preserved after 4,500 years, even still green. It’s considered highly likely that it’s merely the removed topsoil being ADDED BACK ON TOP OF THE GRAVEL, super-topsoil one might say, or at any rate, elevated topsoil.

No why on earth would anyone go to that trouble, especially if the initial aim had been to construct the highest artificial hill in Europe?

Answer? Maybe that was not the aim,  as considered also by L&F: mMaybe that proto-Silbury Hill, that so-called organic mound, served an entirely different purpose, one that was not merely ornamental. Now what could that be?

To those who are gardeners, the answer is obvious. If one makes a heap with turves on top, especially inverted turves (admittedly an exercise of imagination, since we’re not told if that were the case) then one has the beginnings of a compost heap. Why? Because composting to make an organic mulch for one’s roses etc benefits from having well-aerated conditions that encourage the right type of bacteria and fungi to grow, ones   break down dead plant matter to …  compost, the latter contributing to soil HUMUS, which helps plants establish through encouraging healthy growth of roots.

That was the cue for another small exercise of imagination. What does one invariably find when turning a compost heap with a folk, as one’s recommended to do at intervals to improve aeration? Answer: earthworms. They may be large or small, depending on species, but they are attracted by the dead decaying plant matter. It is said that it’s not the plant debris itself that is the attraction, but the microorganisms that grow on it – bacteria and fungi. That’s a detail that need not concern us for now.

The important thing is the realization that Leary’s “organic mound” looks for all the world like the initial phase of a compost heap, and a well aerated one at that being elevated, free-draining etc.

But there’s a problem. While the gravel base keeps it well aerated and well-drained (excess water being the enemy of compost heap, encouraging anaerobic conditions and the wrong kind of bacteria) it would be a barrier to those helpful earthworms. One would be dependent on the replaced top soil having earthworms to get the heap off to a good start. One would be well advised to add earthworms deliberately, just to be on the safe side.

Might they not escape from the heap, if finding conditions not to their liking (like finding non-ideal food?).

Stand by for another exercise of imagination: the gravel and underlying subsoil were a deliberate ploy to keep added earthworms CAPTIVE in the elevated compost heap.

Why would one need to keep them captive? Why might they want to migrate back to ground level and try their chances elsewhere?

So far I’ve said nothing about the diet of those starter worms, though it might be assumed they would not starve if the turves were inverted, allowing the latter gradually to rot down, creating  a slow but steady supply of ‘worm food’.

Just a single compost heap, fed with goodness knows what, but clearly not kitchen scraps? No. Look at the next phase of Silbury construction, where we see the initial heap encircled by what might be called satellite heaps. No, not just one compost heap, but many, all roughly the same size, except maybe the starter being the biggest. Silbury as a communal composting centre, designed for recycling (organic material “X”  still to be clearly specified,  origin uncertain -> compost)?

But wait: the modern day compost heap does not multiply, nor does it grow like topsy, ever wider, ever higher. Why not? Answer, because the end-product, with a wholesome if earthy aroma if conditions were right, is harvested at intervals, and taken for use elsewhere. That clearly did not happen in the case of proto-Silbury, which progressed to primary Silbury, secondary Silbury, tertiary Silbury etc.

So what was being fed to those worms, whether adventitious or (more probably) deliberately introduced, such that there was NO DESIRE to harvest the end-result, that the end-result stayed exactly where it was, being progressively overlaid with more soil, more worms, more ‘offerings’ and finally capped off with vast amounts of chalk, excavated from the nearby encircling ditch.

Ah yes, that ditch.A few words are necessary regarding the ditch.

Now suppose you dear reader had been intending to construct a large artificial mound for whatever reason, purpose unspecified, and had decided to use the local chalk.

Would you (a) decide on the likely size of you final hill, and  only excavate chalk outside of the chosen ‘footprint’ area?

Or would you: (b) decide that it was too tedious to carry chalk from periphery when the initial heap was still small and proceed to dig out the nearest chalk at hand, creating a circular ditch that then ahs to be back-filled  chalk that was from further afield.

Which involves the greater work? Digging chalk and carrying it a few metres or tens of metres to where it’s needed, creating a single ditchOR digging, back-filling, digging, backfilling?

The answer is obvious, and as Leary and Field themselves point out, there was clearly no intention at the start to create something the size of Silbury as we know it. The initial intentions were more modest, and one clearly must look to the detail, so admirably expressed in those line drawing s, with those MULTIPLE MOUNDS to deduce the initial raison d’être.

What could have been serially added to that proto-mound, with nothing being taken away, such that over years, probably decades, probably generations (3 or more?) Silbury Hill gradually took shape as a landscape feature, without that having been the initial intention?

There seems one, and only one logical explanation for all this repetitive activity that takes the form of small heaps that gradually coalesce to become one, each with mysterious “organic” character with those allusions to “dark soils”, “muds” and even earthworms.

Silbury was the place where one took the mortal remains (possibly a very small part thereof) to be communally interred under soil, with an implantation of earthworms.  The inclusion of those earthworms was probably dictated in the Neolithic mind more  by vague ideas re natural recycling of ‘stuff of life’, albeit imperfectly given that animal matter is said not to be an earthworm’s preferred diet   (preferrign we’re told plant rather than non-plant material).

In short, Silbury was a communal compost heap, but one to which there were additions only, not subtractions. The additions were probably modest in size, probably nominal and symbolic, e.g. notably the HEART  of the deceased only(?) The return of that individual’s key organ of life, the heart, may have been viewed as sufficient to liberate the soul, the immortal spirit of the deceased. Leaving nothing offensive in its place, and well-protected, well-concealed  anyway in the early stages of what today we would call biodegradation. As and when signs of that process began to appear on the surface (worm casts, or indeed the worms themselves after rain) there was a simple remedy – place more gleaming white chalk on top. Conceal the evidence of what was going on, out of sight, out of mind.

Incidentally: there one question that needs addressing later: why was chalk added if the intent ion was merely to create compost heaps? Might a need have been seen for chalk to mask the unsightly-looking heaps ,  making the ditch a mere by-product  OR was a ditch around the interment area deemed essential, for reasons that can be discussed later?

The fact of there being a ditch AND a bank of the same excavated material on the inner (mound) side, acting a raised screen or rampart –  see above-  must surely point to the second reason.

Let’s stop here for now. Take away message?  Silbury Hill was intended initially as a communal necropolis for receiving and honoring the mortal remains of the newly deceased, where they were interred with soil and earthworms, a ritual that was intended to free the soul, while returning what was left to the soil.  How much of the deceased was interred? It could have been as little as the heart – given its association with life when visibly beating, Or it could have been more, possibly the entire body if the skeleton were later retrieved. My feeling, based on little more than intuition, is that it was just the heart with at most a few other readily harvested vital organs. The fate of the rest of the body can be addressed another time.

Next posting:  The focus will be on the embedded sarsen stones of Silbury Hill (“like raisins in a cake”). What function did they serve?

I say they can be readily accommodated within the new interment theory.Let’s see if there’s any response to this and my ancient-origins posting first, and whether it’s positive or negative!

Postscript (added Tuesday April 12) : I guess my difficulty with the expression “organic mound” is as follows: first, it seems unlikely that organic matter makes the major contribution. Inorganic matter in the form of the gravel, the various additions on top of the replaced topsoil etc would make inorganic matter the major constituent. Then there’s the difficulty in discerning which organic material is being seen as the major defining constituent of the (minor) organic part of the organic mound. Is it the turf, mosses etc associated with the replaced topsoil?  Surely not, given their amazing state of preservation which while defying common sense perceptions re biodegradation, appear at the same time to detract from their playing any functional role that would justify a focus on “organic”. Or is it the mysterious dark layer above the replaced topsoil when we are told so little about its nature or source, whether as being of marshy origin, or some kind of mud, or imported dark soil. Or is it the ants, snails and other assorted fauna, the presence of which in buried topsoil is hardly surprising? Or is it something to do with those mysterious scooped out parts (see the three question marks on my diagram above) where the same excavated material is returned? Or maybe the imported additions of  out-of-area “home soils” with a range of distinctive flora that are referred to briefly as perhaps signalling the “real” purpose of Silbury Hill,  a celebration of habitat diversity,  (about which I’ve said nothing as yet, through still being unable to decide if they are or are not the defining feature of the “organic” mound).

Would this blogger/retired science bod have deployed that term “organic mound” for so varied an assortment of biological contributions to the proto-Silbury mound? The frank answer is no, since it leaves the recipient of one’s terminology puzzled as to what importance to attach to the term. I might have called it the “oddly-constructed embryonic Silbury” and flagged up the uncertainties regarding some of its layers and/or other contributions, notably those with dark material, which may or may not have been imported soils.

I think I might have been content to call it the “peculiar primer-mound”. That then prepares the reader for the undeniable fact that almost everything about Silbury Hill could be said to be peculiar.

Hopefully, my proposal that the earlier stages of Silbury served as a communal site for composting human remains, ones that leave no trace after millenia of earthworm activity, will serve to reduce some of the perceived “peculiarity”.  But I don’t undersestimate the difficulty of getting my readers to buy into the idea that Neolithic farmers took a very different view to those of modern internet readers as to how best to dispose respectfully but efficiently of the mortal remains of their loved ones. Let’s not lose sight of two practicalities: consigning to a non-shallow grave, out of easy reach of animal scavengers, was a tough option, when the bed rock was chalk, and one had nothing but deer antlers with which to excavate. Cremation on an open pyre? That might have been seen as a terrible waste of dried timber on increasingly deforested upland, especially in winter time, when trying to stay warm was a priority.



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Road map to a new theory of Stonehenge, Woodhenge, Silbury Hill and Durrington Walls. How our Neolithic ancestors ensured their survival during the winter months,

Artist’s impression of Stonehenge – with pigs playing a key role…

Update: September 10th 2014. (Yes, it’s over 2 years since I last posted ,and months since I last looked at this dormant site). But the BBC and papers today are full of the latest findings from Stonehenge (about which more later), So imagine my surprise to find that a site that has been attracting scarcely any visitors  has already had 43 hits so far (early evening).

Hits on this site in response to the latest news on Stonehenge.

Click to enlarge:  hits on this site today (far right) in response to the latest news on   Stonehenge.

What’s bringing them here, courtesy of their search engine? Probably it’s the mention of Durrington Walls (the key to understanding a major phase of Neolithic use of Stonehenge, with maybe de-fleshing of the recently deceased too (‘excarnation’).

See this from the Guardian:

“One of the most striking monuments to emerge from the survey was a 33 metre-long burial mound containing a massive wooden building whose timber foundations – and a giant upright blocking its entrance – were spotted in the soil. Predating Stonehenge, the building is thought to have been a house of the dead where bizarre burial rituals were played out. “The rituals included exposure of the dead bodies, and defleshing on a large forecourt,” said Wolfgang Neuber, at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute. The house was later covered in chalk and finally became a curious white landmark.”

‘Bizarre’ burial rituals? See my postings for an alternative view, based on the imperatives of surviving an English winter where there is virtually nothing than can be harvested for months on end by a Neolithic farmer who has long forsaken a nomadic hunter-gatherer existence, but who has maybe found a solution, based on the omnivorous pig and its insatiable appetite for anything it considers ‘edible’ regardless of origin.


I’ve said I am proposing a new theory on this blog, and that it is “evolving”. So before going further, here’s a road map to show the route this theory is taking, which corresponds approximately with the train of thought that led to me developing these ideas.

Silbury Hill.  Something was systematically buried there, in instalments over a century or so – but what – and why has it left so little trace? I believe it was used to inter the soft internal organs of the deceased, ones that have almost totally disappeared, but have left a chemical signature.

  1. That leads on to why the internal organs only were buried. Why? And what happened  to the rest of the body – the flesh and bone?
  2. That’s leads on to the Neolithic settlement at Durrington Walls, close to Stonehenge that we are told was occupied in the winter months only, and where there was much communal feasting on barbecued pigs.

    Nearby Durrrington Walls – occupied during the einter months only -with much communal feasting on barbecued pigs

  3. But why were the pigs all approximately the same age – some 8 months – and what had they been fed on for the duration of their short lives?
  4. That leads on to Stonehenge and its Woodhenge predecessor. Why were they both designed to detect not only the summer solstice but also, probably more  importantly, the winter solstice too, i.e. the shortest day, approx Dec 21st?
  5. Did the iconic structure of Stonehenge – with those lintels especially – serve a utilitarian as well as ritual role – one that had been previously tested at Woodhenge, and then replicated in a form that was more durable, and resistant to fire, possibly attack also?
  6. Round -up of theory: was Stonehenge all about legitimising a survival winter-time diet, based on barbecued pork in the first instance – but allowing the pigs to make use of a resource that was considered too valuable to dispose of by burial or cremation? Was a narrative constructed that said that the essential soul of the deceased resided in the heart and/or other internal organs – the parts that were ceremonially interred at Silbury Hill –  but that what remained could be re-entered into the food chain through an intermediary – swine – thus fending off any suggestion of cannibalism – especially if given a seasonal sanction that declared that the period beginning at the winter solstice when food was scarce justified the  temporary changeover to a special diet that –  at one stage removed  in the food chain – and thus crucial for developing  aesthetics –  helped to ensure survival while at the same time serving a symbolic role of reuniting Neolithic man with his ancestors ( or so the shaman declared)?

Further reading

Update 10 March: see Guardian article:

Stonehenge may have been burial site for Stone Age elite, say archaeologists

Dating cremated bone fragments of men, women and children found at site puts origin of first circle back 500 years to 3,000BC

Update: 3rd April 2016

Hello, I’m back, after an absence for getting on for 4 years (most of that time preoccupied with the Shroud of Turin). Why am I back? There have been developments. They began when I spotted the ancient-origins site appearing in Google page 1 returns for a search under (shroud of turin) – a welcome breath of fresh air when one looks at the other stale-old sites that (by hook or by crook) still  manage to hog the listings.

Then I spotted a December 2015 posting on Silbury Hill, curiously described as a Neolithic burial mound – but – small embarrassment – without any known burial!

Here’s a link to the Silbury posting in question:

Well, the cogs began turning, and suddenly the answer appeared out of the blue. Yup, the answer (or what I consider to be the answer) to the age-old enigma of Silbury Hill! It can be summarised it 4 words: compost heaps, captive earthworms…

Here is a copy-and-paste of each of my two comments placed on the end of that posting. There’s more to come, much more. Please bear with me.

Colin Berry wrote on 25 February, 2016 – 14:42

Fascinating, especially the theory as regards the need for decarnation of the skeleton before the soul could be released.

One small gripe however, namely the idea that the largest man-made mound on Europe was constructed in a mere 10 years. What’s the evidence for that?

Back in 2012 when this science blogger was writing on Silbury Hill (linking it with Stonehenge!), that excellent book by Jim Leary and David Field appeared (see link to my ‘sciencebuzz’ site below).

They too reckoned it had been constructed fast, amazingly so given the complexity of Silbury’s structure, starting with a small starter mound with “sticky gravel”, then the progressive addition of further mounds around the periphery, then on top, forever expanding, then addition of chalk and rock and ramparts for structural support and drainage, building it up like a layer cake. Let’s not forget all the mysterious dark banding (decayed organic matter? soft issue remains?)

They reckon it took a century or thereabouts, an estimate I’m more inclined to believe.

So what was Silbury for, and why are there no recognizable human remains if it was used as suggested here for initial decarnation of the newly deceased?

Well, the idea of letting the soft tissues decompose, and then (presumably) removing the skeleton later is a neat suggestion. It’s very close to my own hypothesis, namely that the internal organs – viscera, possibly including the heart too – which may or may not have been venerated, conceivably on a par with the soul – was what went into those individual mounds that gradually coalesced to become a giant super-mound.

What about the rest of the body, notable flesh, i.e. muscular tissue and bones? Ah, well that’s where Woodhenge, Durrington Walls and finally Stonehenge enter the story, they being some 25 miles away, the sites we’re told of communal winter feasting on roast pork. Or was it smoked bacon? And what were the pigs fed on (don’t ask, unless interested in the gory business of ritualized, dare one say semi-industrialzed decarnation, ‘secondary necrophagy even thanks to those unfussy pigs’!) ? Was Woodhenge (Stonehenge Mk1) designed to facilitate smoking and curing of hung meat? Was it later replaced by a more durable, less flammable structure, the one we call Stonehenge?

Yup,or should that be YUK, one can get a flavour of what may have been the REAL PURPOSE of Silbury Hill AND Stonehenge from thje link below. But you’ll need a strong stomach, even for that fairly restrained posting (later ones being more explicit as regards detail):

Here’s the second comment, posted  a few days ago:

Colin Berry wrote on 30 March, 2016 – 11:05

Since posting this comment just over a month ago, an idea has occurred to me that would explain the peculiar manner in which Silbury Hill evolved.

I have been in touch with the owners of this site, proposing that the idea in question be announced here, where it’s likely to attract far more attention than if published on my dormant Silbury blogsite.
But there’s a snag: even if the site were to agree to publish my article, that could take time, with the risk that I could lose publishing priority (“publish or perish” as they say).
While the idea is simple in principle, absurdly so, it could have important implications for the way in which one judges the level of technological development in late Neolithic society (circa 2500BC).
So, to establish priority (“you read it here first”) here’s my idea in telegraphic form.
Silbury Hill began as a gravel mound, with the underlying turf and top soil removed down to subsoil, and the turves and topsoil then placed back on top of the gravel.

I believe that was a device to create the beginnings of a compost heap, and that earthworms were deliberately introduced into what Leary and Field have described as the initial “organic mound”. The gravel heap with uninviting subsoil was a device to keep the earthworms captive within the mound, where they would then be given human mortal remains, namely selected internal organs and/or other soft tissue as primary input (while recognizing that earthworms are considered to obtain their major nutrition from the microorganisms – bacteria and fungi – that grow on the biodegrading organic detritus).

Silbury Hill can be seen as the end result of a coalescence of scores, perhaps hundreds of individual small ‘compost heaps’ each containing a deposition from one deceased individual, each “seeded” with a handful of earthworms that would reduce the soft tissue offering via aerobic (NOT smelly anaerobic) processes to something resembling inoffensive-looking, inoffensive smelling black soil.

Hopefully there will be an opportunity to back up the hypothesis at a future date with more information. In the meantime, I strongly recommend the book “The Story of Silbury Hill” by Jim Leary and David Field (English Heritage 2010) with its delightful artist’s impression of the early stages of construction provided by Judith Dobie (which can also be seen on the helpful display board at the visitor’s observation area).


Watch this space folks, or rather this website, shortly to receive some new posings, fleshing out the new hypothesis, and addressing the inevitable criticisms that are bound to be made, hopefully constructive.








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